Anthrax toxin

Anthrax toxin is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, “Bacillus anthracis”—the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). These three protein components act together to impart their physiological effects. Assembled complexes containing the toxin components are endocytosed. In the endosome, the enzymatic components of the toxin translocate into the cytoplasm of a target cell. Once in the cytosol, the enzymatic components of the toxin disrupts various immune cell functions, namely cellular signaling and cell migration. The toxin may even induce cell lysis, as is observed for macrophage cells. Anthrax toxin allows the bacteria to evade the immune system, proliferate, and ultimately kill the host animal. Research on anthrax toxin also provides insight into
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Anthrax War

Anthrax War is a 2009 documentary film about the 2001 anthrax attacks and the rise of today’s biomilitary industrial complex that was co-produced by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and ARTE-France. Broadcast internationally, it was nominated for the 2009 Prix Europa for Outstanding Current Affairs Broadcast. It also screened at the Frontline Club in London, the IDFA Fest in Amsterdam, the Tri-Continental Film Fest in Johannesburg, and the 9/11 Film Festival in Oakland, California, among other venues.
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Anthrax

Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium “Bacillus anthracis”. It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection. Symptoms begin between one day and two months after the infection is contracted. The skin form presents with a small blister with surrounding swelling that often turns into a painless ulcer with a black center. The inhalation form presents with fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath. The intestinal form presents with diarrhea which may contain blood, abdominal pains, and nausea and vomiting. The injection form presents with fever and an abscess at the site of drug injection.
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